Arboriculture is the part of Forestry that deals with Trees and Tree Breeding.
Forestry adds a variety of Tree species that include decorative Log, Plank, Stair, Door and Fence variants for each one. Many of the Trees also have unique produce with use elsewhere in Forestry.
Obtaining Forestry saplings
Unlike vanilla Trees and Trees from most other mods, Forestry Trees are characterized by genetic traits. The Forestry Multifarms Arboriculture module only plants saplings with genetic material and is the quickest way to convert vanilla saplings into their Forestry variants.
Otherwise, simply exposing vanilla Trees to the action of nearby Bees or Butterflies will slowly produce pollinated leaf blocks that can be broken to retrieve the sapling. Use the Grafter for a 100% chance to acquire the sapling; otherwise normal yield ratios apply.
Tree genetics and mutations
While Bees and Butterflies can carry pollen between leaf blocks, it is possible using Alveary Sieves to gather the pollen and manually apply it.
Pollen, saplings and leaf blocks in the world all carry genetic traits. When a sapling is planted, the resulting tree's leaf blocks will carry the result of the Mendelian combination of the genes carried by the sapling's parent leaf block and pollen combination.
Right-clicking a leaf block with pollen will put that leaf block into a pollinated state; this can be done passively by letting Bees or Butterflies interact with the leaf block. Spectacles can be worn to highlight pollinated leaf blocks and a Grafter used to gather the resulting sapling.
As usual, certain combinations of the Species trait can produce a mutation to create a completely different species of tree and unlock traits.
The Escritoire can be used to perform research on any Tree specimens (saplings and pollen), using Honeycombs, saplings and or pollen to provide clues. The Escritoire will produce a Research Note. Research Notes can be consumed to improve the chance of the player getting certain Mutations.